Fair Games Reading Answers has 14 different question types. Candidates will see multiple question types with clear instructionsIELTSSection. Fair Games Reading Answers includes three question types: true/false/fail, and choose the correct option. Candidates must correct/incorrect/not specified based on the information and suggestions provided and complete the summary using no more than two words for each answer. In order to select the correct option, candidates must read theIELTS readingpassage and understand the explanation provided. To master the Read section, theIELTS Reading Practice Documentsgreat way to prepare the area.
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Question about the reading passage
For seventeen days every four years, the world is briefly stopped by the riveting, dizzying spectacle of athleticism, ambition, pride and celebration showcased at the Summer Olympics. However, after the last weary spectators and competitors return home, host cities are often swamped with large debts and expensive infrastructure maintenance. The huge costs associated with a successful Olympic bid are often easily offset by tourist revenue and an increase in local employment, but more often than not the host cities change and their taxpayers for generations to come pay the debt.
Olympic spectacles begin with the application process. The bidding alone will cost most cities around $20 million, and while the official bidding process will only take two years (for shortlisted cities), most cities can expect to work on their bidding for a decade, from Beginning to the announcement of the voting results of the members of the International Olympic Committee. In addition to the financial costs of pure bidding, the process ties up properties in estimated urban locations until the result is known. This can cost the local economy millions of dollars in lost revenue from private developers who could have used the land, and it can also mean certain neighborhoods lose vitality due to vacant lots. All of this may be for naught if a candidate city fails to appease the whims of IOC members — private connections and opinions about government behavior often predominate (Chicago's 2012 bid was likely derailed by political tensions outside the US).
However, the bid costs are nothing like the exorbitant bills that come with hosting the Olympics themselves. As is usual with large individual projects, budgeting for the Olympic Games is a notoriously daunting task. Los Angelinos recently paid for the budget-busting 1984 Olympics; Montreal is still in debt from the 1976 Games (to make matters worse, Canada is the only host country not to have won a single gold medal at its own Olympics). The tradition of rampant spending has continued in recent years. The managers of the London Olympics have admitted their costs for 2012 could be ten times higher than originally projected, leaving taxpayers £20bn in the red.
Hosting the Olympic Games is often seen as an excellent way to improve a city's sports infrastructure. The extensive requirements of the Olympic sport include water complexes, horse riding tracks, shooting ranges, beach volleyball courts and, of course, an 80,000-seat track and field stadium. However, these requirements are usually only needed to handle a short influx of athletes from around the world. Despite the initial enthusiasm of many communities for the development of world-class sports facilities in their hometowns, these facilities often fall into disrepair after the Olympic fervor wanes. Even Australia, home to one of the world's sportiest demographics, has left its taxpayers a $32 million-a-year bill for keeping venues empty.
Another important concern is that as urban infrastructure is developed in preparation for hosting the Olympic Games, these benefits should accrue to a single metropolitan area (with the exception of some outlying areas which may receive some renovated sports facilities). In countries with a large land mass, this means that large parts of the population are completely excluded. Furthermore, as the International Olympic Committee favors thriving 'global' centers (Britain, after three failed attempts, was told by its provincial cities that only London had any real chance of winning), improved public transport, roads and communications links tend to be concentrated in places which are already equipped with first-class infrastructure. Constantly ignoring smaller cities leads to a cycle of disenfranchisement: These cities never receive a capital injection, don't become front runners, and are constantly sidelined in favor of safer choices.
After all, there is no guarantee that an Olympics will be a hit with the public. The “feel good factor” that most supporters of the Olympic bids tout (and which no doubt drives the 90-100 percent approval rating of Parisians and Londoners for their respective city's 2012 bids) can be an indescribable phenomenon, and one is linked to that nation's position in the medal table. This fleeting thrill compares neither to the years of disruptive construction projects and security fears that preceded the Olympics, nor to the decades of debt repayment that followed (Greece's preparation for Athens 2004 is famous for discouraging tourists from visiting the country, a widespread uneasiness about traffic jams and disruptions).
There are viable alternatives to the bloat, extravagance, and unnecessary spending that accompany the modern Olympics. One option is to designate a permanent host city that will be redesigned or built from the ground up specifically for the task. Another is to extend the duration of the Olympic Games into a multi-month festival. Local businesses would benefit from the additional costs, and congestion would decrease significantly as competitors and spectators hop on and off according to their specific interests. However, neither the “Olympic City” nor the extended length options get to the heart of the matter. It would be preferable to eliminate ritual and decorum and instead focus on sporting rivalry.
Otherwise the Olympics could simply be cancelled. International competition can still be maintained through world championships in every discipline. In any case, most of these events already take place in non-Olympic years - the International Athletics Federation, for example, has held World Athletics Championships every two years since 1983 after members decided that using the Olympic Games for the championship was more than enough. Events of this nature keep world-class competition alive without incurring Olympic expenses.
solution and explanation
Complete each sentence below with the correct ending A-K.
Write the correct letters, A-K, in boxes 14-18 on your answer sheet.
- Proposals to become a host city
- Personal relationships and political tensions
- Cost Estimates for the Olympic Games
- Purpose built sports facilities
- Urban developments related to the Olympic Games
- often help smaller towns to build basic infrastructure
- tend to occur where they are least needed.
- Profitable companies have to exit the market
- Often never used when the game is over
- Can last up to ten years
- Also meet the needs of local residents for first-class sports facilities
- It is usually only successful if it comes from a capital city
- Are closely related to people's emotional attitude towards the Olympic Games
- They are notoriously inaccurate.
- They often inform the decisions of the members of the International Olympic Committee.
- They are delaying efforts to reform the Olympics.
subordinate clause:"The bid alone will cost most cities around $20 million, and while the official bid will only take two years, most cities can expect to work on their bid for a decade from the moment in which it begins, pending the announcement of the results of the citation of the members of the International Olympic Committee. 🇧🇷
keywords:Affectionate, a decade
Keyword place:For 2, row 1
explanation:According to the Passage, it takes a decade to complete an Olympics bid. It is a very time-consuming process and bidding to host the Olympic Games takes a decade. A decade means 10 years. Therefore E is the correct answer.
subordinate clause:“All of this may be for naught if a candidate city fails to appease the whims of IOC members – private connections and opinions about government behavior often prevail (Chicago’s 2012 bid is believed to have been undermined by political tensions outside the US). 🇧🇷
keywords:private connection, government opinion
Keyword place:Paragraph 2, last line
explanation:The author mentions that private connections and opinions about government behavior often prevail. This means that members' decisions are often underlined. The decisions of the Olympic Games largely depend on the political and personal relationships of the members of the International Olympic Committee.
subordinate clause:The managers of the London Olympics have admitted their costs for 2012 could be ten times higher than originally projected, leaving taxpayers £20bn in the red. 🇧🇷
Keyword place:Paragraph 3, last line
explanation:The passage says the cost could increase 10-fold from original projections. This means that the estimate of the cost of the Olympic Games is considered very inaccurate.
subordinate clause:“Despite the initial enthusiasm of many communities to develop world-class sports facilities in their hometowns, these facilities often fall into disrepair after the Olympic fervor wanes. 🇧🇷
keywords:Non-use after the Olympic Games
Keyword place:for 4, row 4
explanation:The author notes that world-class sporting facilities are built but fall into disrepair after the Olympics. Host cities and developments that took place as a result of the Olympic Games will not be reused after being used for the Games.
subordinate clause:"Another major concern is that if urban infrastructure development is undertaken in preparation for hosting the Olympic Games, these benefits will accrue to a single metropolitan area (with the exception of some outlying areas, which may receive some renovated sports facilities)."
keywords:Development, unique metropolis
Keyword place:for 5, row 1
explanation:The development of civilian infrastructure for the Olympic Games is taking place where it is least needed. The author mentions that these advantages accrue to a single metropolis.
Do the following statements agree with the information in the reading passage?
Write in boxes 19-25 on your answer sheet
TRUTHwhether the statement agrees with the information
NOT CORRECTif the statements contradict the information
NOT GIVENif there is no information about it.
Issue 19. Host city residents have limited access to all Olympic facilities.
subordinate clause:“Continually ignoring smaller cities leads to a cycle of disenfranchisement: These cities never receive a capital injection, don't become front runners, and are constantly sidelined in favor of safer choices. 🇧🇷
keywords:never get stop
Keyword place:Paragraph 5, last line
explanation:The author notes that these cities never receive a capital injection and do not become prime candidates. This means that residents of the host city have very little access to the Olympic venues. Therefore the statement is true.
Question 20. Australians have still not paid for the construction of sports facilities for the Olympic Games.
explanation:No relevant information was found in the paragraph.
Question 21. People far beyond the host city can expect to benefit from improved infrastructure.
subordinate clause:“As the International Olympic Committee favors thriving 'global' centers (the UK has been told after three failed bids for its provincial cities that only London has a real chance of winning), public transport, roads and communications tend to improve to focus on locations that are already well equipped with first class infrastructure”
keywords:improvement, with world-class infrastructure
Keyword place:For 5, row 5
explanation:The author mentions that it is difficult for other cities to get benefits. In addition, in places far from the host cities, citizens do not benefit in any way from the infrastructure developed as a result of the Olympic Games. Therefore the statement is wrong.
Question 22. It is difficult for small cities to win an Olympic bid.
Statement of Support:"This can cost the local economy millions of dollars in lost revenue from private developers who could have used the land, and it can also mean certain urban neighborhoods lose vitality due to vacant lots."
Keyword place:For 2, row 5
explanation:The author notes that it is very difficult for small towns to bid for the Olympics. It could require millions of dollars in lost revenue from private developers and impact urban neighborhoods that would otherwise lose vitality due to vacant lots. The statement says the same thing. So it's true.
Question 23. Generally, when a city bids for the Olympics, the majority of its citizens want it to win.
explanation:No relevant information was found in the paragraph.
Question 24. Whether people like hosting the Olympic Games in their city depends on how their country's athletes behave at Olympic events.
Statement of Support:"These requirements are usually only needed to handle a short influx of athletes from around the world"
keywords:the influx of athletes
Keyword place:For 4, row 2
explanation:It is certain that the host city will like the development of the facilities for the Olympic Games, which will depend on the performance of the athletes who come to play.
Question 25. Fewer people than usual visited Greece in preparation for the Athens Olympics.
Statement of Support:"Greece's preparations for Athens 2004 discouraged tourists from visiting the country amid widespread unease about congestion and disruption"
Keyword place:Paragraph 6, last line
explanation:When the 2004 Olympics were set to be held in Greece, they significantly reduced the number of tourists due to the inconvenience of traffic jams and disruptions. The question is in sync with the supporting phrase. So it's true.
Questions 26 and 27:
Choose a letter, A-E
Write the correct letters in boxes 26 through 27 on your answer sheet.
Which TWO of the following does the author suggest as alternatives to the current Olympics?
- The Olympics should be canceled in favor of individual competitions for each sport
- The Olympics should focus on ceremonies rather than competitions.
- The Olympic Games must always be held in the same city.
- The Olympic Games were to last a month instead of seventeen days.
- The Olympics should be smaller, eliminate unnecessary and unpopular sports.
Statement of Support:"One option would be to nominate a permanent host city that would be redesigned specifically for the task or built from scratch."
Keyword place:For 7 row 2
explanation:One way to fix the Olympics is to have a permanent host city that would be fixed every 4 years before the Olympics.
Statement of Support:“The Olympics could just be cancelled. International competition can still be maintained through world championships in every discipline.”
keywords:For 8, row 1
Keyword place:Last paragraph, line 2
explanation:Another way to fix the Olympics is that the Olympics can be stopped in all sports. That means the Olympic Games can be stopped.
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